#MedEd

Menage-a-Trois

Ah! Got you there, didn’t I?

They say when trouble comes, it comes in threes. For example, this month, I have three soul crushing, morale destroying, confidence pulverizing examinations lined up one after the other. (That might explain this post!)

Anyways, so I was reading a lot of clinical buzzwords and stuff and I realized that one of the most important things is clinical triads, and there are tons of them. So, I decided to make a neat little list of the eponymous clinical triads only.

Here goes:

Anderson’s Triad: Cystic Fibrosis:Bronchiectasis/Cystic Fibrosis
Celiac Disease
Vitamin A deficiency

Atta’s Triad: Bilharzial Dysentery:Bleeding per rectum
Polyposis
Clubbing
Austrian triad:Pneumococcal pneumonia
Meningitis
Endocarditis (classically aortic valve endocarditis associated with aortic regurgitation)

Beck’s Triad: Cardiac Tamponade:Muffled Heart Sounds
Distended Neck Veins
Hypotension

Beck’s Cognitive Triad: Depression:Negative thoughts about
–  The self (i.e., self is worthless)
– The world/environment (i.e., world is unfair)
– The future (i.e., future is hopeless)

Borchardt’s Triad: Acute gastric volvulus:Vomiting, followed by retching and then an inability to vomit
Epigastric pain and distension
Inability to pass a nasogastric tube
Bergman’s Triad: Fat emboli syndrome:Depressed sensorium
Axillary/thoracic petechiae
Dyspnea

Bezold’s Triad: Otosclerosis:Failing or diminished perception of deeper tones
Retarded bone conduction
Negative Rinne’s test

Carney’s Triad:Gastric Leiomyosarcoma
Pulmonary Chondroma
Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma

Charcot’s Triad: Cholangitis:

Pain in right upper quadrant of the abdomen
Fever
Jaundice
Charcot’s Triad: Multiple Sclerosis:Intention tremor
Dysarthria (Scanning or staccato speech)
Nystagmus

Currarino Triad:Sacral dysgenesis
Pre-sacral mass
Anal or rectal malformations
Cushing’s Triad: Raised Intracranial Pressure:Elevated systolic blood pressure
Bradycardia
Irregular respiration

Dieulafoy’s Triad: Acute Appendicitis (Defense Musculaire):Hypersensitivity of the skin
Tenderness
Muscular contraction at McBurney’s Point

Female Athlete’s Triad (Not eponymous per se):Eating disorders
Amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea
Osteoporosis

Gradenigo’s Triad: Petrositis:VIth Cranial nerve palsy causing ipsilateral squint and diplopia
Persistent Otorrhea
Ipsilateral deep seated retro orbital pain due to irritation of Trigeminal nerve

Greg’s Triad: Congenital Rubella:Sensorineural deafness
Retinopathy/Cataract/Microphthalmia
Patent ductus arteriosus
Horner’s Triad: Pancoast Tumor (amongst many others):
Miosis
Ptosis
Enopthalmos
Hutchinson’s Triad: Congenital syphilis:

Interstitial keratitis
Hutchinson’s incisors
VIIIth nerve deafness
Kartagener’s Triad: Ciliary akinesia:Situs inversus
Abnormal frontal sinuses producing sinusitis and bronchiectasis
Immobility of cilia
Luciani’s Triad: Cerebellar diseases:Hypotonia
Weakness of muscles
Ataxia

MacDonald’s Triad: Sociopathic personality disorderEneuresis
Arson/Pyromania
Animal Torture

Meckler’s Triad: Boerhaave’s Syndrome or Esophageal rupture: Vomiting
Acute lower chest pain
Subcutaneous emphysema
Meltzer’s Triad: Cryoglobulinemia:Palpable purpura
Arthralgia
Myalgia/Muscular Weakness

Morton’s Triad:Congenital short and hypertrophied forst metatarsal bone with tenderness over it
Hypermobile first metatarsal segment
Callosities under the second and third metatarsal segments

O’ Donoghue’s Triad: Twisted Knee Injury:Coincidemce of Anterior Cruciate injury, Medial collateral injury and Meniscal tear
Quincke’s Triad: Hepatic Artery Aneurysm:Epigastric pain
Hemobilia
Obstructive Jaundice

Reiter’s Triad:
Urethritis
Arthritis
Conjunctivitis/Uveitis
Reynold’s Pentad: Ascending Cholangitis:Right Upper Quadrant Pain
Fever
Jaundice
(Charcot’s Triad)
Hypotension
Altered mental status

Rigler’s Triad: Gallstone Ileus:

Ectopic gallstone
Partial or complete bowel obstruction
Pneumobilia
Saint’s Triad: Exemplifies Hickam’s Dictum (opposite of Occam’s Razor):Cholelithiasis
Hiatal Hernia
Diverticular Disease

Samter’s Triad (aka Widal-Abrami-Lermoyez Triad): Aspirin Induced Asthma:Aspirin sensitivity
Nasal or ethmoidal polyps
Bronchial asthma
Sandblom’s Triad: Traumatic hemobilia:Gastrointestinal bleeding
Biliary colic
Jaundice

Souques’ Triad: Parkinsonism:Elevation and extension of paretic arm results in involuntary extension of fingers
Tipping the chair back while a Parkinsonism patient is seated on it will not result in extension of limbs to maintain balance due to loss of associated movements
Violent over exertion may occur when a Parkinsonism patient attempts to run owing to rigidity

Trotter’s Triad: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma:Unilateral conductive hearing loss
Ipsilateral otalgia and facial pain due to Trigeminal nerve involvement
Ipsilateral paralysis of the soft palate
Virchow’s Triad: Venous Thrombosis:Hypercoagulability
Venous stasis
Endothelial injury
Vogt’s triad: Tuberous Sclerosis:Epilepsy
Mental retardation
Facial angiofibroma (adenoma sebaceum previously)

Vogt’s Triad: Glaucoma/Buphthalmos:Blepharospasm
Lacrimation
Photophobia
Vogt’s Triad: Congenital Toxoplasmosis:Congenital cataract
Chorioretinitis
Cerebral calcifications
Vogt’s triad: Post Congestive Glaucoma:Glaucomfleckens (Anterior cortical opacity)
Iris stromal atrophy
Pigment on corneal epithelium

Waddell’s Triad: Pediatric Pedestrian in a Road Traffic Accident:Head trauma
Thoracic and/or abdominal trauma
Femoral fracture

Whipple’s Triad: Attack of TRUE Hypoglycemia (Insulinoma):Symptoms and signs known or likely to be caused by hypoglycemia
Low plasma glucose (<45 mg/dl or 2.5 mmol/lit)
Relief of symptoms with administration of glucose to raise plasma glucose levels to normal

menage

UPDATE: Since a few people expressed their interest in taking a print of this page and told me that the wordpress.com print option rendered the page in a rather ugly fashion, I uploaded the PDF I made for myself. Download it here.

 

 

Advertisements

10 thoughts on “Menage-a-Trois

    • Thanks. I was going for the shock and awe effect with the title! Guess it worked! 😛 And anyways this title is way cooler than “Laundry List of Eponymous Clinical Triads That Might Be Important for Your Examinations”! Glad you liked it!

Debates and Discussions...

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s